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Materi Akutansi International

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Materi Akutansi International
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§Chapter 4:
The Role of Culture
§International Business, 4th Edition
§Griffin & Pustay
§Chapter Objectives_1
§Discuss the primary characteristics of culture
§Describe the various elements of culture and provide examples of how they influence international business
§Identify the means by which members of a culture communicate with each other
§Chapter Objectives_2
§Discuss how religious and other values affect the domestic environments in which international businesses operate
§Describe the major cultural clusters and their usefulness for international managers
§Explain Hofstede’s primary findings about differences in cultural values
§Explain how ethical conflicts may arise
§Culture
§Characteristics of Culture
§Learned behavior
§Interrelated elements
§Adaptive
§Shared
§Figure 4.1 Elements of Culture
§Social Structure
§Individuals, families, and groups
–Importance of family
–Definition of family
–Importance of individual relative to the group
§Social stratification – categorization based on birth, occupation, educational achievements
§Social mobility – ability to move from one stratum of society to another
§Language
§3000+ different languages worldwide
§10,000+ different dialects
§Primary delineator of cultural groups
§Lingua Franca
–English is the common language of international business
§Map 4.1 World Languages
§Map 4.2 Africa’s Colonial Heritage
§Translation Disasters
§KFC’s Finger Lickin’ Good
–Eat your fingers off (China)
§Pillsbury’s Jolly Green Giant
–Intimidating green ogre (Saudia Arabia)
§Yes and No Across Cultures
§Latin America
–meaning of “manana”
§Japan
–meaning of  “yes” versus “yes, I understand”
§Caterpillar has developed its own simplified language instruction program –Caterpillar Fundamental English
§Table 4.1 Forms of Nonverbal Communication_1
§Hand gestures
§Facial expression
§Posture and stance
§Clothing/ hair style
§Walking behavior
§Interpersonal distance
§Touching
§Eye contact
§Architecture/ Interior design
§Artifacts and non-verbal symbols
§Graphic symbols
§Table 4.1 Forms of Nonverbal Communication_2
§Art and rhetorical forms
§Smell
§Speech rate, pitch, inflection, volume
§Color symbolism
§Synchronization of speech and movement
§Taste, symbolism of food, oral gratification
§Cosmetics
§Sound signals
§Time symbolism
§Timing and pauses
§Silence
§Religion
§Christianity
–Catholicism
–Protestant
–Eastern Orthodox
§Islam
§Hinduism
§Buddhism
§
§Map 4.3 Major World Religions
§Two million Muslims annually descend on the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudia Arabia as part of the Haij
§Values and Attitudes
§Values: accepted principles and standards
§Attitudes: actions, feelings, and thoughts that result from values
–Time
–Age
–Education
–Status
§Theories of Culture
§Hall’s Low-Context, High-Context Approach
§Cultural Cluster Approach
§Hofstede’s Five Dimensions

 

§Hall’s Low-Context,
High-Context Approach
§Low-context: words used by speaker explicitly convey speaker’s message
§High-context: the context in which a conversation occurs is just as important as the words spoken; cultural clues are critical to communication
§Figure 4.2 High- and Low-Context Cultures
§Map 4.4 A Synthesis of Country Clusters
§Table 4.2 Cultural Differences in Negotiating Styles
§Hofstede’s Five Dimensions
§Social Orientation
§Power Orientation
§Uncertainty Orientation
§Goal Orientation
§Time Orientation
§Social Orientation
§Power Orientation
§Uncertainty Orientation
§Goal Orientation
§Time Orientation
§Figure 4.4 Social Orientation and Power Orientation Patterns
§Understanding New Cultures
§Self-reference criterion
§Cultural literacy
§Acculturation
§
 
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Ditulis oleh pada 16/08/2012 in Akutansi International

 

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